13. The mountain that Borglum chose to carve was known to the Lakota as the “Six Grandfathers.”
14. It had also been known as Cougar Mountain, Sugarloaf Mountain, Slaughterhouse Mountain, and Keystone Cliffs, depending who you asked.
15. The mountain’s official name came from a New York lawyer who was surveying gold claims in the area in 1885.
16. Charles E. Rushmore asked his guide, William Challis, “What’s the name of that mountain?” Challis is said to have replied, “It’s never had one…till now…we’ll call the damn thing Rushmore.”
17. In 1930, the United States Board on Geographic Names officially recognized it as Mount Rushmore.
18. The carving of Mount Rushmore began in 1927 and finished in 1941.
19. The actual carving was done by a team of over 400 men.
20. Remarkably, no one died during construction.
21. The men who worked on the mountain were miners who had come to the Black Hills looking for gold.
22. Although they weren’t artists, they did know how to use dynamite and jackhammers.
23. The Borglums did hire one artist, Korczak Ziolkowski, to work as an assistant on the mountain. But after 19 days and a heated argument with Lincoln Borglum, Ziolkowski left the project. He would later begin another mountain carving nearby, Crazy Horse Memorial, which today is the world’s largest mountain sculpture in progress.
24. Mount Rushmore once had an amateur baseball team.
25. Because Gutzon and Lincoln Borglum were so competitive, they would often hire young men for their baseball skills rather than their carving and drilling skills.
26. In 1939, the Rushmore Memorial team took second place at the South Dakota amateur baseball tournament.
27. The image of the sculpture was mapped onto the mountain using an intricate “pointing machine” designed by Borglum.
28. It was based on a 1:12 scale model of the final sculpture.
29. 90% of the mountain was carved with dynamite, and more than 450,000 tons of rock was removed.
30. Afterwards, fine carving was done to create a surface about as smooth as a concrete sidewalk.
31. The drillers and finishers were lowered down the 500-foot face of the mountain in bosun chairs held by 3/8-inch-thick steel cables.